Criminal Code (R.S.C., 1985, c. C-46)

Act current to 2017-12-11 and last amended on 2017-10-18. Previous Versions

Marginal note:Documents
  •  (1) Any document obtained pursuant to a warrant, authorization or order issued in accordance with subsection 488.01(3), or that is the subject of an order made under subsection 488.01(6) or paragraph 488.01(10)(c), is to be placed in a packet and sealed by the court that issued the warrant, authorization or order and is to be kept in the custody of the court in a place to which the public has no access or in such other place as the judge may authorize and is not to be dealt with except in accordance with this section.

  • Marginal note:Notice

    (2) No officer is to examine or reproduce, in whole or in part, a document referred to in subsection (1) without giving the journalist and relevant media outlet notice of his or her intention to examine or reproduce the document.

  • Marginal note:Application

    (3) The journalist or relevant media outlet may, within 10 days of receiving the notice referred to in subsection (2), apply to a judge of the court that issued the warrant, authorization or order to issue an order that the document is not to be disclosed to an officer on the grounds that the document identifies or is likely to identity a journalistic source.

  • Marginal note:Disclosure: prohibition

    (4) A document that is subject to an application under subsection (3) is to be disclosed to an officer only following a disclosure order in accordance with paragraph (7)(b).

  • Marginal note:Disclosure order

    (5) The judge may order the disclosure of a document only if he or she is satisfied that

    • (a) there is no other way by which the information can reasonably be obtained; and

    • (b) the public interest in the investigation and prosecution of a criminal offence outweighs the journalist’s right to privacy in gathering and disseminating information.

  • Marginal note:Examination

    (6) The judge may, if he or she considers it necessary, examine a document to determine whether it should be disclosed.

  • Marginal note:Order

    (7) The judge must,

    • (a) if he or she is of the opinion that the document should not be disclosed, order that it be returned to the journalist or the media outlet, as the case may be; or

    • (b) if he or she is of the opinion that the document should be disclosed, order that it be delivered to the officer who gave the notice under subsection (2), subject to such restrictions and conditions as the judge deems appropriate.

  • 2017, c. 22, s. 3.
Marginal note:Definitions
  •  (1) In this section,

    custodian

    gardien

    custodian means a person in whose custody a package is placed pursuant to subsection (2); (gardien)

    document

    document

    document, for the purposes of this section, has the same meaning as in section 321; (document)

    judge

    juge

    judge means a judge of a superior court of criminal jurisdiction of the province where the seizure was made; (juge)

    lawyer

    avocat

    lawyer means, in the Province of Quebec, an advocate, lawyer or notary and, in any other province, a barrister or solicitor; (avocat)

    officer

    fonctionnaire

    officer means a peace officer or public officer. (fonctionnaire)

  • Marginal note:Examination or seizure of certain documents where privilege claimed

    (2) Where an officer acting under the authority of this or any other Act of Parliament is about to examine, copy or seize a document in the possession of a lawyer who claims that a named client of his has a solicitor-client privilege in respect of that document, the officer shall, without examining or making copies of the document,

    • (a) seize the document and place it in a package and suitably seal and identify the package; and

    • (b) place the package in the custody of the sheriff of the district or county in which the seizure was made or, if there is agreement in writing that a specified person act as custodian, in the custody of that person.

  • Marginal note:Application to judge

    (3) Where a document has been seized and placed in custody under subsection (2), the Attorney General or the client or the lawyer on behalf of the client, may

    • (a) within fourteen days from the day the document was so placed in custody, apply, on two days notice of motion to all other persons entitled to make application, to a judge for an order

      • (i) appointing a place and a day, not later than twenty-one days after the date of the order, for the determination of the question whether the document should be disclosed, and

      • (ii) requiring the custodian to produce the document to the judge at that time and place;

    • (b) serve a copy of the order on all other persons entitled to make application and on the custodian within six days of the date on which it was made; and

    • (c) if he has proceeded as authorized by paragraph (b), apply, at the appointed time and place, for an order determining the question.

  • Marginal note:Disposition of application

    (4) On an application under paragraph (3)(c), the judge

    • (a) may, if the judge considers it necessary to determine the question whether the document should be disclosed, inspect the document;

    • (b) where the judge is of the opinion that it would materially assist him in deciding whether or not the document is privileged, may allow the Attorney General to inspect the document;

    • (c) shall allow the Attorney General and the person who objects to the disclosure of the document to make representations; and

    • (d) shall determine the question summarily and,

      • (i) if the judge is of the opinion that the document should not be disclosed, ensure that it is repackaged and resealed and order the custodian to deliver the document to the lawyer who claimed the solicitor-client privilege or to the client, or

      • (ii) if the judge is of the opinion that the document should be disclosed, order the custodian to deliver the document to the officer who seized the document or some other person designated by the Attorney General, subject to such restrictions or conditions as the judge deems appropriate,

      and shall, at the same time, deliver concise reasons for the determination in which the nature of the document is described without divulging the details thereof.

  • Marginal note:Privilege continues

    (5) Where the judge determines pursuant to paragraph (4)(d) that a solicitor-client privilege exists in respect of a document, whether or not the judge has, pursuant to paragraph (4)(b), allowed the Attorney General to inspect the document, the document remains privileged and inadmissible as evidence unless the client consents to its admission in evidence or the privilege is otherwise lost.

  • Marginal note:Order to custodian to deliver

    (6) Where a document has been seized and placed in custody under subsection (2) and a judge, on the application of the Attorney General, is satisfied that no application has been made under paragraph (3)(a) or that following such an application no further application has been made under paragraph (3)(c), the judge shall order the custodian to deliver the document to the officer who seized the document or to some other person designated by the Attorney General.

  • Marginal note:Application to another judge

    (7) Where the judge to whom an application has been made under paragraph (3)(c) cannot act or continue to act under this section for any reason, subsequent applications under that paragraph may be made to another judge.

  • Marginal note:Prohibition

    (8) No officer shall examine, make copies of or seize any document without affording a reasonable opportunity for a claim of solicitor-client privilege to be made under subsection (2).

  • Marginal note:Authority to make copies

    (9) At any time while a document is in the custody of a custodian under this section, a judge may, on an ex parte application of a person claiming a solicitor-client privilege under this section, authorize that person to examine the document or make a copy of it in the presence of the custodian or the judge, but any such authorization shall contain provisions to ensure that the document is repackaged and that the package is resealed without alteration or damage.

  • Marginal note:Hearing in private

    (10) An application under paragraph (3)(c) shall be heard in private.

  • Marginal note:Exception

    (11) This section does not apply in circumstances where a claim of solicitor-client privilege may be made under the Income Tax Act or under the Proceeds of Crime (Money Laundering) and Terrorist Financing Act.

  • R.S., 1985, c. 27 (1st Supp.), s. 71;
  • 2000, c. 17, s. 89;
  • 2001, c. 41, s. 80.
 
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